Saturday, August 31, 2019
Mgmt 5000 Custom Coffee & Chocolate The mission of Custom Coffee & Chocolate is to provide lovers of fine chocolate and coffee a place to indulge themselves. From the cafeÃ¢â¬â¢s current offerings and proposed expansion, I do not think that the indulgence aspect of the mission statement is limited to the chocolate and coffee itself. I think that the menu variety, entertainment events and amenities that they will offer lend themselves to the mission of indulgence. The menu variety, for example allows one to indulge the pallet and explore the world through taste.Entertainment events allow one to immerse themselves in the sounds and words of other cultures while relaxing and surfing the net all at once. The cafeÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths include knowledge of customer base, specialized products, repeat business and a high traffic location. Weaknesses are lack of financial capital, limited staff, and majority of business is takeout. They are also weak in their lack of marketing and short-term lease on property. The cafe does have some opportunities though.The opportunities present are expanding the menu and services, marketing cafe as an entertainment or meeting venue, or include the always-popular wireless connection. Threats present for the cafe are other restaurants and businesses in the area. They are likely to see their success and create a similar offering of their own that features lower prices, better product or services. I believe that one of the first goals that Custom Coffee & Chocolate should achieve is extending their hours and staff. By achieving this goal first, it will make moving toward all their other goals flow smoothly.Their next steps should be to secure a wireless connection and begin to have small entertainment events. Brewer should begin to ramp up the cafeÃ¢â¬â¢s marketing plan by advertising the events and wireless access. The marketing campaign should be targeted in the local lounges, campus commons, and dorms. After the entertainment has bee n established as a success, it would provide a good test market to begin expanding the cafeÃ¢â¬â¢s menu into new areas. Then finally, they should launch a website for the cafe that features all their best assets.
Organizational Design Ã¢â¬â The process through which managers select the combination of organizational structure and control systems that they believe will enable the company to create and sustain a competitive advantage. Coordinate and motivate employees To create valueand Obtain a competitive advantage Koontz and OÃ¢â¬â¢Donnell The Process School of Management Planning Organizing Staffing Directing Controlling Building blocks of organizational structure Differentiation Vertical Ã¢â¬â how much authority to delegate Horizontal Ã¢â¬â how to divide people Into functions and divisions Integration Ã¢â¬â coordinate people and functions To accomplish organizational goals and tasks Tall structure (7 Ã¢â¬â 10 levels) Flat structure (2 Ã¢â¬â 4 levels) Tall Structure Problems Coordination Information distortion Motivation Too many middle managers McKinsey Consulting Company Increased height of company organization structures Presidents Office President of each division Centralization or Decentralization (tending toward) Decentralization 1. Delegate decision making authority to middle and lower level managers 2. Adapt to local conditions. Promotes flexibility 3. Fewer managers needed Centralization 1. Facilitates coordination and planning 2. Decisions fit broad organizational objectives Management Policy Ã¢â¬â Guidelines for decision making are made at highest levels And passed down to lower levels Horizontal Differentiation Ã¢â¬â How to group tasks and activities to meet strategies Functional Structure Ã¢â¬â Grouping by expertise. Most U. S. firms have a functional structure Advantages Good place to learn Easy to control Effective and efficient Disadvantages Geographical diversion causes duplication of people and costs Communication problems Measurement problems Location problems Strategic problems Product Structure Ã¢â¬â Group by product line. Product Team structure Matrix Management Concurrent Design Methodology Cross-functional teams Geographic Structure Multidivisional Structure Self-contained product line or business unit (Operating responsibility) Corp headquarters staff. Financial Control. (Strategic Responsibility) Advantages of Multidivisional Structure Enhanced corporate financial control Strategic control Growth Internal efficiency Disadvantages of a Multidivisional Structure Establish Division-Corporate authority levels GM and Alfred Sloan Litton Industries Distortion of information Competition for resources Transfer pricing (GE example) Focus on short-term High operating costs All functions are in each division Integration and Organizational Control Forms in Integrating Mechanisms 1. Direct contact 2. Interdepartmental liaison roles 3. Temporary task forces Ã¢â¬â ad hoc committees 4. Permanent teams Ã¢â¬â standing committees 5. Integrating roles Differentiation and Integration The Nature of Organizational Control 1. Monitor 2. Evaluate 3. Compare actual to goals 4. Take corrective action Strategic Controls Financial controls Stock Sales Growth ROI Profit Output Controls Set Goals Measure output performance against goals Behavior Control Ã¢â¬â Rules and Procedures Common controls 1. Operating budgets 2. Standardization 3. Rules and procedures 4. Organizational Culture a. Values Ã¢â¬â beliefs and goals b. Norms Ã¢â¬â Expectations for behavior Culture and Strategic Leadership Walt Disney example
Friday, August 30, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"The SoldierÃ¢â¬ by Rupert Brooke Analysis Ã¢â¬Å"The SoldierÃ¢â¬ , is a British patriotic sonnet written by Rupert Brooke in 1914. It expresses love for the mother country which in this case is Great Britain. This poem describes the physical aspects of death and the writerÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion of it. Although death is the main point in this poem, it not depicted in a twisted and gruesome manner. Rather, death in this poem is a sacrifice. Ã¢â¬Å"The SoldierÃ¢â¬ is a patriotic poem. The purpose of patriotic poems during WWI was to motivate people to enlist for the armed forces.It is quite similar to a piece of propaganda, asking in a way for people to join the armed forces; to take his place should he be killed Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å"If I should die, think only this of meÃ¢â¬ . We know that this poem is patriotic because of the last three lines of the first stanza, in particular Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å"A body of EnglandÃ¢â¬â¢s, breathing English air,Ã¢â¬ We also know this poem is patr iotic because it was written in 1914, when the war just started and spirits were high. After a while though, the enthusiasm dropped as people began to discover the nasty and cruel conditions of the trenches.By the end of war, famine and constant bomb raids had completely obliterated all signs of patriotism. In the first stanza, Brooke mentions his belief of the physical aspects of death for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s country. The Ã¢â¬Å"foreign fieldÃ¢â¬ is where his body will lay forever. The soil contains the soul of a glorious man who died for his country. Brooke believes that if he dies there, the soil around his body will become a part of England as a result of the purity of his soul Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å"That is forever England,Ã¢â¬ The soldier was brought up by England and as a result, his thoughts and beliefs are both influenced by England.When he dies, all of his evil deeds and sins have been forgiven because he gave the ultimate sacrifice; to die for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s country. Brooke also bel ieves that, because the motherland was so nice to him, he must give back what she has given to him; that he must lay down his life to ensure that the motherland stays a free country. It is the only thing that he can give back to the motherland to say thanks. Throughout this poem, England is personified as a mother. It demonstrates how important the soldiers of England really are to the country itself.Brooke writes this poem in a patriotic and joyful manner. He does not believe that dying for your country is a traumatic experience. This in contrast to another famously acclaimed poem by Wilfred Owen Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Å"Dulce et Decorum EstÃ¢â¬ Brooke believes that dying for oneÃ¢â¬â¢s country is a brave and honourable thing to do, especially during war. It states that should the person die, he should not be mourned, instead he should be looked upon as a selfless sacrifice to England.Although the poem itself is referring to one person; himself, the title suggests that this poem is repr esenting all soldiers, as when soldiers fight in wars, they lose their identity and become cogs in a big machine. To conclude, Rupert BrookeÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"The SoldierÃ¢â¬ is a patriotic poem about a soldier who had great love for his country. Brooke presents this sonnet as a piece of propaganda and encourages people to enlist for the armed forces. This poem describes the ideas of death in a mind of a patriotic person and gives us an insight into BrookeÃ¢â¬â¢s style of writing. Overall, this is a poem about honour and glory, about life and death.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
DQ 10 - Essay Example Procrastination simply refers putting things off to another time. Instead of someone doing what they know they are able to do at the moment, they prefer to leave it for another day. This leads to slow changes in our lives hence lack of personal development. Poor time management is another leading factor that inhibits proper personal growth and development. A person who is unable to manage his time is also a poor planner. Both time wastage and lack of planning means that a person has a schedule does not know how to manage his time. Disorganization and lack of goals also contributes to poor personal development as one has no specific goals that drive him. The lack of discipline to achieve the goals that a person has set for himself or those set at the work place leaves a person stuck in one place hence poor personal growth. As a professional journalist, I have learnt that it is important to conduct myself in a professional manner at all times. First, I have adapted the skill of always been up to date with the changing technology that is used to gather and disseminate information. Through this, I am sure that I will be up to date with the current events, not only in my country but also in the world. This also puts me in a better position to disseminate the information I have gathered to the people who need urgently. I have also acquired the art of confidentiality, especially when it comes to interviews. Most people do not wish to be known publicly yet they still give me very helpful information. For this reason, I have learned to maintain their anonymity at all costs. Professionally, I am able to relate to my colleagues without getting too personal or creating unnecessary conflicts amongst us. To improve my proficiencies, I know I can always refer to my bosses for help whenever the need arises. My colleagues are also in a position to help me in case i ask for their advice. I can also use the internet to improve my
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Trifles a drama by Susan Glaspell - Essay Example The wives, Mrs. Peters and Mrs. Hale accompany the men to take some personal belongings for Mrs. Wright. The men get busy looking for evidence to account for the murder and leave the women to the Ã¢â¬Å"triflesÃ¢â¬ . It is then that they look around and find the various things in the kitchen and the room upstairs to establish a plausible connection between the murder and the objective. Starting out from the title, Ã¢â¬Å"triflesÃ¢â¬ . Trifles are things which are little, irrelevant and insignificant. The irony of the matter is that the Ã¢â¬Å"triflesÃ¢â¬ are so just for the men, and they mean quite a lot to the women. The ruined fruit reserves, symbolize the state of MinnieÃ¢â¬â¢s life - she too must have bottled up under the watchfulness of John Wright. The comment Wright makes about wanting only Ã¢â¬Å"peace and quietÃ¢â¬ might throw some light on the loneliness of their lives. The messy tabletop also points out to things undone, which could have been because of the disturbed state of mind of Minnie. The coldness in the house also suggests the solemn and sad atmosphere in which they lived. Mrs. Hale comments that the house was never lively, it was down the hollow and did not look up the road and that is why she never felt like coming there. It is evident that a place which looks dreary from the outside must have been quite a burden to live in for Minnie. This coldness also symbolizes the warmth leaving the relationship between the two. The house being down in the hollow, JohnÃ¢â¬â¢s refusal to the party telephone, the childless home, all indicate the lonesomeness of the couple. Minnie who was cheerful and would dress up nice, now stayed in all the time with her songbird as her child. The death of the bird is empathized by Mrs. Peters in remembering the death of her own 2 years old child. What that meant to Mrs. Peters now meant the same to Mrs. Wright. This highlights the graveness of the wrung neck of
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
The broken tower - Research Paper Example CraneÃ¢â¬â¢s poetry manifested a lot of treats of death and rebirth of love (Hazo, 1963). The modern perfection of death showed a lot of impossibilities in motion while having some resurrection of some kind though giving a very pessimistic message (Quinn, 1963). In his poem, A Broken Tower, Hart Crane uses a lot of biblical allusions and echoes to describe the creative process and the difficulties that come with it forcing the artists to be bound by it. There are several metaphors used in the poem. In the poem, crane used a lot of metaphors and references to referring to God and the church bells directly. This makes it possible to give a religious interpretation to the poem. It is also argued that both arts and religion have metaphors that are similar making the works of the poet both a way of spiritual expression while at the same time making it possible to search for the truth (Hazo, 1963). The tittle, Ã¢â¬Å"A Broken TowerÃ¢â¬ has been used continuously to allude to the fact that there is a continuous deconstruction of the existing paradigms making it critical for artistic progress. Crane in the poem talks of destroying a stone tower in a continuous manner while building a new one within himself. There is also the change of tone from negative to positive making the poem a stylistically simple with abab rhyming pattern of ten quatrains (Quinn, 1963). At the beginning of the poem, crane uses the bell which is one of the predominant metaphors. The bell has a lot of religious importance as it is use to refer to the morning call that is normally made for people to go for morning prayers (Hazo, 1963). In this poem however, CraneÃ¢â¬â¢s bell is not used to call people for morning prayers but used to gather God. There is also a strange fact in stanza one as the tone is negative despite being used to regard to dawn and God which have traditionally been positive. The angelus bells in stanza one is imagery used to treat the resurrection of Crane from hell as the images suggest in the poem. This is show by the falling stone tower with some stony and hellish (Quinn, 1963). The death that Crane is dealing with was caused by modernity that has caused a lot of pessimist by ostensibly that is nearly inescapable. These towers would be guessed as the one of the modern world. The bells of resurrection are used to open the breaking bonds of the first four stanzas making it possible to bring back the poet to the broken world. As the poem proceeds, the bells become a metaphor of poetry which makes the poet sing. The same is true for the coming of the word of God and the divine revelation that bring love. The same revelation of love is brought in according to the poet. External towers of love forms one of CraneÃ¢â¬â¢s poetic projects which broken and inner ones are building (Hazo, 1963). The poet has his Ã¢â¬Ëfeet chill on steps from hellÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëdropped down the knell of spent dayÃ¢â¬â¢. This portrays a lot of curious negativity showi ng how crane has rejected the traditional region that is established. Going Ã¢â¬Ëfrom pit to crucifixÃ¢â¬â¢ as always been positive and used to symbolize the movement towards God. The first stanza is however decidedly negative manifesting a disdain of tradition (Hazo, 1963). Some of the Biblical allusions like the angelus bell commemorated the incarnation of Jesus Christ, the alternating melodies that overlapped played on the bells while the papal documents eluded the divinely inspired messages. The bell-towers and campaniles represented the Italian cathedrals
Monday, August 26, 2019
Business Plan for Food Stall Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2250 words
Business Plan for Food Stall - Research Proposal Example They expect to draw weekly from the expected profits at the rate of ' 600 each per week or '1,800 weekly for all of them. Consequently, they made inquiries on the food they will sell, the pricing thereon, and the cost of sales as well as the operational expenses they expect to incur. The marketing strategy and program of the venture is simple. The target market is those who will be entering the games area who watch the games. They are expected to buy their snacks or for some their entire meals. It is expected that substantially most of the people going to the games will be buying their snacks which will consist of sandwiches, soft drinks, chips, or bottled water. The product line that is intended to be sold are burgers, bottled water, soft drinks, and chips. These will be available in the stalls, and some are to be sold by one of the two sales assistants who will be peddling the items inside the stadium ad around the area. There will be a variety of burgers to be sold. The mix of burgers will depend on the weekly experience of the sales which will be the basis of the purchases to be made. Nonetheless, the partners have estimated the volume of sales by kind of product line. It is only in the variety of the burgers that decisions have to be made on a weekly basis. The main product expected in the venture is the sales of burgers where the price per piece is '1.50 against a cost of '1.20 each. This is a margin of 25% of cost. The other three products are to be sold at cost. Pricing Strategy The pricing is based on the margin based on the variable cost. Considering that the main product is burgers the pricing is to add a mark-up on the cost at the rate of 25% only on the burgers. There are no mark ups on the other three lines. Below is the price, cost and margin for each product: (All in pound sterling. Assumed that there are 100 pennies per pound sterling) Product line Price per piece Cost per piece Gross margin % of margin Bottled water .20 .20 0 0 Soft drinks .50 .50 0 0 Chips .50 .45 .05 10% Burgers 1.50 1.20 .30 25% The pricing of the water soft drinks and chips do not carry any mark up. It is expected that the grant will cover up for the "no mark-up" and to subsidize the operational costs to be incurred during the games. This policy though means that the burden to cover the operational costs is on the sales of burgers. This policy will only be during the games. After the games it is expected that the venture will continue but with margins on the sale of all products to be sold. Product cost strategy The venture will merely purchase the items to be sold. This will be done by entering into contract of supply from reliable suppliers for the duration of the games. Since the burgers are perishable items there is a need to be keen on the preferences of customers on the kind of burger and to order these items accordingly. Spoilages are expected to be incurred and therefore have to be minimized by closely analyzing the sales for the previous week. The other products are packed or bottled so there is no danger of spoilage. However, in the case of the bottled drinks there is a need to stock a few items for the day. Promotions The venture will embark on some advertising posters around the Olympic grounds
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Analyzing an ELS learner piece of language - Assignment Example The orthography poses a great problem as English is written from left to right while Arabic language is written from right to left. Keeping in view all these problems, a teacher of English has to perform a very difficult task in making his students master English language. The present study probes into different aspects regarding errors made by Arabic speakers during ESL learning. A sample of composition from an Arabic speaking student has been analyzed to highlight commonly occurring errors. In the following paragraphs we will first point out the errors and then find out the possible cause of these errors and in the end certain remedial measures would be suggested. Different researchers have also paid attention to this issue and have studied Arabic speaking learners to find out the possible solutions. The persistence of these errors suggests that some pedagogical intervention to raise students consciousness about them is necessary.( Cowan,2008).Lado(1957) hypothesized that errors in the second language (L2) are caused by the interference of the students native language. Such errors reflect the students inability to separate L1 and L2. Therefore, a contrastive analysis of L1 and L2, he thought, will help predict the areas of difficulty in L2. Odlin (1989): James (1980); Brown (1980) pointed out that studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ errors in L2 are caused by several processes. These include transfer, overgeneralization and communication strategies. There are many problematic areas for the students of English language in Arab countries. From the very beginning, he/she realizes that he/she is learning a different language which has many sounds which are not present in their mother tongue. The sounds which become difficult for the Arab learners are: The Arabic speakers mostly replace / p/ with / b/ sound that is the reason that they feel difficulty in pronouncing words like People, popular , perpetuate .In this case we will hear /b/ sound instead
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Sports Corruption in Ghana - Essay Example The 2010 report of the World Bank regarding corruption in Ghana claimed that as many as 95 percent of the total health resources in the country end up going in the hands of the private individuals. In addition, the public only benefits from only 5 percent of the total spending of the government on the health sector (National Development Planning Commission (Ghana) & International Monetary Fund, pp. 14-19). The people of the country are suffering greatly due to the poor living standards and austerity measures in the country but they fail to realize that they are sitting on mineral resources of gold, oil, timber, diamond, bauxite, manganese, sliver, limestone, and others worth trillions of dollars (Rosner & Shropshire, pp. 88-89). In short, Ghana is one of those countries in Africa which have great potential due to the location, history and demographics, however, they country is far from realizing its potential due to the rising corruption in the country. It was on September 29, 2011 t hat Ghana Anti Corruption Coalition admitted the fact that Sports Corruption is eating away the credibility of Ghana football and if serious actions are not taken in the near future then the officials may be left with nothing to save (Nicholls, Daniel, Bacarese & Hatchard, pp. 342-345). The following few lines will attempt to lay down a framework by discussing the importance of sports in everyday life and the theoretical impact of corruption on sports. The damage which corruption does to the sport, its dignity, and perception is the most ruthless out of all (Levy & Wong, 359-362). Men and Women turn to sports so that they could seek escape from the tiring and mechanistic day-to-day activities. Sports are an alternative to... The paper tells that sports serve an important purpose of inducing and inhabiting healthy lifestyles in the hearts and minds of the children and the adults. Educational institutions, parents, experts, researchers and academicians and others encourage sports for students because it helps them steer the children away from unhealthy activities. The time available to students can be classified into two categories, one that is spent on healthy and productive activities, and other being the one spent on unhealthy and nonproductive activities. Nonproductive activities would include watching TV, sitting idle, excessive eating, excessive internet browsing, chatting and cell phone use, and use of drugs, parties, and others. However, productive use of the leisure time includes activities such as completing the homework, studying, engaging in sports, physical exercises, workouts and others. Research indicate that when children engage in sports, they are crowding out the possible time that could have been allocated to unhealthy leisure time activities and at the same time, they are getting physical and mental exercise which is always crucial to the performance of the mind and the body. The problem occurs when talented, confident, and hardworking players do not get a chance to be the part of the national teams or they fail to get exposure that they think they deserve. Players work extremely hard throughout their life to represent their country, city of region in sports tournaments. Usually they end up comprising their studies, friendships, families and others in order to focus more on their sports career.
Friday, August 23, 2019
Thoughts On 2oth Century Art - Essay Example Salvador Dali, on the other hand, was very vocal about what the Nazi had systematically deprived the human race. DaliÃ¢â¬â¢s The Persistence of Memory had left a strong impression as a new representation of the qualities of time. Time, as we believe, is something that is stoic and unchangeable. However, in the painting, Dali depicted his surrealist impression of the collapse of this cosmic order. He had incorporated time, man and death in what is to become his most famous painting. In retrospect however, if I were to choose which painting I would want to for my own aesthetic pleasure, I would choose DaliÃ¢â¬â¢s two depictions of The Basket of Bread. It is probably because bread is not only the sustenance of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s being but because it depicts his impression of HitlerÃ¢â¬â¢s irrational hunger. In conclusion, Picasso and Dali are both great artists and were able to influence a majority of artists up to now. I believe that being regarded as a sarcastic genius, Picasso was not compelled to look into the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s evils as much as Salvador Dali. Picasso was imprisoned in his own secluded being that did not allow him to see what occurred outside. Whilst Dali has incorporated his personal convictions during a time of war and unrest into his art describing the reality
Kierkegaard's account(s) of faith - Essay Example His philosophy states that infinites passion is capable enough of overriding the seemingly impossible. It goes against the seemingly uncertain and the unlikely Even if there is objective uncertainty, infinite passion has the power to bring about change and make things happen. On the other hand the account of faith discussed by Johannes de Silentio in Fear and Trembling, through Knight of Faith, resides on the premise that through belief in the absurd, even the impossible can be made possible. This is intrinsic faith. We all believe in the absurd. What is absurd? It could be God, it could be the Ã¢â¬Å"universe conspiring for you to connect you with your goal, it could be a holy spiritual energy, it could be coincidence or anything which defies reason. Intrinsic Faith is a concept or a practise that can be cultivated through belief and conscious conviction about a thing happening or an event taking place successfully despite the mammoth obstacles in front. In case of Knight of Faith, he has resigned to the fact that he will never get the princess, but through faith, it is possible to get to his desired destiny. The power of faith is at its fullest application in connecting the Knight of Faith with his goal. ... These two philosophies of faith are different. According to the writer Pojman, the difference in the two accountÃ¢â¬â¢s of faith, that of Kierkegaard and that of Johannes Climacus is perspective. Their perspectives are different. Kierkegaard writes with an insider-point of view about Christianity, whereas Climacus writes about it from the outside. However both agree on how one becomes a true Christian and on the matter of Christianity. (Sands 17) If a situation or a circumstance or an event is foreseen with infinite passion and belief in the absurd, it gathers positive energy from the Ã¢â¬ËdoerÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËwisherÃ¢â¬â¢ as well as spiritual energy from the unknown power Ã¢â¬â God. If anything had to happen beyond predictable turn of events, defying reason it had to happen through positive belief in the divine power and through infinite passion. . (Sands 25) What objections might be made to KierkegaardÃ¢â¬â¢s account(s) of faith, and how might he answer them? The objec tion that can be made to KierkegaardÃ¢â¬â¢s account of faith is that by writing from the view-point of an unbeliever, Kierkegaard hoped to Ã¢â¬ËbeguileÃ¢â¬â¢ readers into recognising their own necessity to convert into Christianity. . (Sands 17) Another objection raised against KierkegaardÃ¢â¬â¢s account of faith is Ã¢â¬Å"Kierkegaard's treatment of religious belief is that it fails to distinguish between someone who has a justified belief and someone who is insane.Ã¢â¬ (Philosophy of Religion 1) To this objection Kierkegaard would say that like existence itself, religious belief has no ultimate rational justification and therefore there is no way to distinguish it from reality. Kierkegaard would say that stage of infinite resignation is the last stage before faith. Therefore, anyone who has not made this movement,
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Solving This Case Please Essay Professor A. Van Cauwenbergh of Antwerp University, in a paper presented at the Tenth Anniversary Conference of the European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management, presented four revisions to traditional Management Theory. In summary, the revisions are: (1) The initiative for the renewal and adjustment of the activities of a firm should come from the different levels in the management hierarchy. Ã¢â¬Å"Strategy is not a privilege of top managementÃ¢â¬ . (2) Firms, especially big firms, are incoherent systems (goals of the different component systems are not simply subdivisions of an overall goal; there are individual, conflicting goals as well). Some of these differences are manifestations of organizational initiative and vitality. Using information systems and central planning and rule making to suppress all differences is destructive to organizations. (3) The most vital Ã¢â¬Å"fluidÃ¢â¬ of an enterprise is the aggregate of its entrepreneurial values. The most fundamental and motivation and control come through these shared values relative to work, quality, efficiency, etc. Management often neglects these values and assumes that the collection and dissemination of information will provide sufficient motivation and control. (4) Enterprises are open systems; their structure and operating processes are determined by their environment. This means organizations must be designed to continually adjust to the environment. Questions:Ã 1. If these revisions are correct, how is planning to be organized? How should the information system support the planning organization? 2. Can the information system aid in achieving shared values? 3. How might a comprehensive system be used to stifle initiative
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Tourism Theories And Practices Tourism Essay Tourism Theories and Practices What do tourists do and why? Critically discuss Tourism industry has emerged as one of the fastest growing industry and largest employers in the modern world. This sheer vastness of the industry is understood from the fact that the numbers of tourists worldwide are anticipated to be doubled to one billion plus by the end of 2010.(Kamra, p 184) This essay will discuss in brief the different theories of tourism which define tourist behavior, their roles, activities and motivations which in turn influence the industry. Thesis statement: Tourists and their thought process, their behavior and motivations are centrifugal to the concept of tourism. Many scholars have tried to define the typology of the tourists, their classifications in order to understand the concept of tourism. The essay will outline some of the old theories and the modern day approach and why there is a need for more research based studies to exploit the potential of this industry. Meaning of tourism-What is tourism Michel Eyquem De Montaigne said, A man should ever be ready booted to take his journey. Man because of his gregarious nature is bound to travel from one place to another to fulfill his various needs be it social, emotional or physical. Traveling is thus characteristic to human society on the whole. Travel and tourism was traditionally considered as a luxury item. But with the turn of the century, definition of travel and tourism has evolved. Tourism no longer stands for simple traveling or temporary journeys and stays mainly for pleasure, leisure and or recreational purposes or a luxury element. Twentieth century ushered in the paradigm shift in the concept of tourism. In fact it will not be unjustified to say that there has been transition from the 19th and early 20th century concept of tourism as an exercise in leisure and pleasure domain to the concept of tourism as an exercise in business, economics. It is more of a consumer product; tourism industry is a vibrant market where tourism products can be sold now as any other consumer product, consumer here is the tourist. (Kamra, p 157) According to statistics brought out by the statistics of the World Tourism Organisation (WTO) in 1994, tourism contributed 12 per cent of the worlds Gross National Product. (Kamra, 12) Tourism industry is one of the fastest growing industry employing hundreds of millions of people worldwide, which explains the reason why the study of the tourism and tourism research has become so important in not only the academic field but also for the economy on the whole. Modern day tourism is much more than simple traveling; it is pure economics, which is determined by theories of demand, and supply, which brings in the question of sustainability. Tourism is no more synonymous to traveling. Today tourism is just like a normal consumer product, which is driven by market dynamics, demand supply, sold through retail outlets. It no longer remains a luxury of the upper class but has become a mass product for the growing consumer market, in this case the growing tourist community. (Swarbrooke and Horner p 4) In fact there has been a combination of factors which have resulted in the proliferation of tourism industry. The prime being increased leisure, higher incomes of burgeoning middle class. One of the main drivers to growth in the coming era would be the growing middle class. The study of tourism theories and practices therefore would mainly revolve around the needs, motivations, role, experiences of the the tourists. What do tourists do and why? The most general classification of tourists is on the basis of the needs of the tourist. This would mainly classify the entire tourist community into two groups-the traveler and the tourist. While the former is mainly conceived as one who would basically travel to understand the place and thus would rather prefer longer trips and would plan it individually. The latter classified, as a tourist in laymans version would be characterized as one with superficial interest. One who would indulge in shorter trips and group tours or charters and would mainly depend on tour agents. But this classification is very vague. Motivations Most of the tourists travel for change of environment because of which new concepts of tourism like eco-tourism, rural tourism have come into existence. Cultural attractions, education, gaining knowledge about new cultures might be other important motivations. For example attraction towards Buddhist culture has made Myanmar and some parts of North East India a major hub for Buddhist tourists from all around the world. People from all around the world travel to these places to get experience the Buddhist spirit. There can be other motivations also like quest for new experience, personal visits etc. Some of the most prevalent theories of destination development and classification of tourists Some scholars have tried to classify the tourist on the basis of their needs, which explains the reason for their travel. For example a tourist can be classified as explorer, elite, offbeat, unusual, mass or charter on the basis of his/her demand. While an explorer tourist group will want discovery, adventure, exploration, a elite tourist might have a special personally customized tailored trip to any exotic places. Or for example an offbeat tourist might travel to get away from the crowds. The classification according to demand describes the main purpose of travel. There can be a pure mass group also under the demand-based classification where the tourist might prefer normal tour packages and holiday trips to conventional places. Thus classification on the basis of demand to a large extent determines the needs and the activities of the tourists. There can also be classification on the basis of the meaning and requirement, where tourists might travel for the sake of simple recreation, diversion, experiential, experimental reasons. There can be also motivational based classification. Understanding the motive behind traveling might help to predict consumer psyche. An American researcher named Plog (Mason 26) put forth his theory based on the psychology of tourists and these were published in 1973. Plogs theory was based on a case study conducted on New York residents and their attitudes to travel. Plogs discussed the tourist behavior and motivations based on the psychology of the tourists. Thus there are two types of tourists, the allo-centric and psycho-centric types of tourist. He argued that there are particular psychological types who do not like unfamiliar environments or cultures, so when they select a holiday they will seek the familiar regions than unfamiliar remote regions (these he termed psycho-centric). Plog further added that there are still some groups in society who will be prepared to risk a far more uncertain holiday destination. These tourists will search for strange or unfamiliar and these he termed allo-centric. While the psycho-centric would not travel far from the local environment the allo-centric would travel long distances to unfamiliar locations. He concluded that the majority of the tourists were neither fully psycho- centric nor fully allo-centric. Rather most of the tourists were located in the center point between the two extremes of psycho-centric and allo-centric.And that majority of the tourists would seek the familiar and prefer not to travel great distances to get there. An important point that emerged from the destination development of Plogs theory is that different tourists destinations are attractive to different types of tourists based on the kind of traveler they are, psycho or allo-centric and that majority of the tourists will prefer to travel for short distances than longer ones to go for holidays. Thus it suggests that the tourist destinations in most of the developed countries which are in close proximity to major population areas, busy areas, markets, residential areas are likely to be developed and grow more quickly than those in the distant remote areas. However, in actual practice, sometimes this theory may also prove wrong. On the contrary many of the remote areas are now getting faster developed than those near the major population areas. While Plogs theory was based more on the psychological part of tourists, Erik Cohens theory relate to the behavior of the tourists. Erik Cohen who developed a classification of tourists where there was a four chief classification. First was the organized mass tourists who travel in groups, who prefer packaged holiday (travel, accommodation, food etc.) usually arranged by a travel agent. The second type was the individual mass tourists who use the same facilities as the organized mass tourists, but the difference lies only in decision making. This group makes more individual based decisions about their activity and trip. There are also the explorers and the drifters. While explorers would most often arrange their own trips, meet and interact with the locals drifters avoid all contact with other tourists and leave with the locals. This classification of tourists lives longer than the other groups. If both the above mentioned tourist theories which basically delve into the characteristics of human behavioral aspects are combined then we would see that majority of Cohens mass tourist and independent mass tourists would converge with Plogs psycho-centric tourists. Later in the mid 1970s, Doxey proposed the Irritation Index or the Irridex. The Irridex was based on the relationship between the tourists and the locals. The fundamental idea as it is evident from the name of the index itself is that over a time period as the number of tourist increase in a particular area, a greater irritation and hatred would build up amongst the locals towards the tourists. So, over the time as the locals gets more irritant with the visitors and become hostile, the number of visitors might actually decline or might not continue to grow at the same rate as previously. But the problem with most of these theories was that most of them were not based on proper field research but on discussions. Butlers Tourist Area Life Cycle (TALC) (Mason, 33) model on tourism which is still the most widely accepted and important theory deals with a particular destination, his theory explains how a destination emerge as a tourist destination after several stages. Butler suggested a model where a tourism destination develops over time as a result of several factors. Destination is a very important element in tourism. A destination is defined most widely as a product is marketed to its consumers. And like all other products, tourist destinations also have a life cycle. Butler proposed a model for tourism area life cycle in which he showed how a destination begins as a relatively unknown place and visitors first come in small fractions because of lack of access, facilities and local knowledge (Miller and Galluci, 2004) The key point in Butlers model was that planning and proper remedial action by the tourists can help arrest the decline in resorts and tourism infrastructure. One of the major challenges that the World Tourism Organization made in its Global Forecasts for the year 2000 and beyond is the issue of sustainability, which relates to the absorptive capacity of an economy with respect to tourism. This does not refer to the physical capacity alone but also to the capacity of a particular area to provide tourism infrastructure, pool in investments, manpower, and natural resources. While manpower would not be a constraint, other natural resources might be. The theory of sustainable tourism thus off late has emerged of greater relevance, which is necessary to promote environmental awareness and boost tourism industry on the whole. Sustainable tourism in a nutshell can be explained as a means by which tourist growth is achieved as well as environment and earths scarce resources are preserved. Apart from the environment issue another burning issue, which might emerge as an impediment is lack of trained skilled workforce to deliver value additions. In conclusion it can be said that although several tourism theories have been put forth by several scholars to determine the roles and activities, the characteristics of tourists to boost the industry. There is a general lack of awareness about these theories amidst the policy makers. Tourism industry is still one of those industries, which is regulated by government administration. There are wide varieties of conceptual and theoretical approaches to tourism, which have to be tested in reality. This apart there is a further need for more field studies and employment of professionals in conducting the research, which will help achieve greater theoretical orientation and practical application. The tourism industry has been growing at a phenomenal rate for the last fifty year especially, after the Second World War. The recession has had an effect on the industry, but the numbers of tourists worldwide are anticipated to be doubled to one billion plus by the end of 2010. Keeping in tune with the changing times consumer demands will also change, more classifications based on growing needs of tourists might emerge. What can be the cultural and social impact of tourism development Researchers have identified a whole gamut of positive impacts of tourism development on societies. For example the direct outcomes of tourism development would be the modification of the internal structure of the community, increasing employment opportunities of the local residents, social change, economic affluence, improvement of the quality of life through infrastructure development. Similarly the interaction between the host and tourist increases tolerance and communication skills etc. On the cultural side the arts, crafts and culture of the local area might be revived. Researchers have also identified several cons like deployment of natural resources, increased pressure on existing infrastructure, commodification of culture and its negative effects etc (Beeton 18) Thus it can be seen in the essay how tourist behavioral needs, motivations, actions directly and indirectly affect tourism development in a place. Only right kind of practices would be able to give the necessary boost to this industry, which alone will contribute the largest chunk in global trade. Understanding the needs and motivations of the tourists will help boost tourism industry manifolds. What is required is the right approach. Tourists behavior research in tourism has to be based on motivations, typologies, destination choices and the decision process. While this is good some scholars criticize it as stereotypical and generalized which might not be the same in reality. The gap between the theories and the reality can be bridged through research and constant study of tourist behavior. References K Kamra 1997, Tourism: Theory, Planning and Practice, Second Edition-2008 Peter Mason, Tourism Impacts, Planning and Management Online book version), Second edition- 2008,Ã Mason, P. Cheyne, J. (2000). Residents Attitudes to Proposed Tourism Development, Annals of Tourism Research. Peter Mason, Tourism Impacts, Planning and Management Second Edition Abraham Pizam, Yoel Mansfeld, Consumer behaviour in travel and tourism Softcover edition published 2000 John Swarbrooke, Susan Horner, 2007, Consumer behaviour in tourism, Edition: 2, p 4, 428 pages Sue Beeton 2006, Ã Community Development through Tourism., p 18.Ã
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Independent Cafe Leadership Strategies Coffee express started as a very small cafe; shop with only 6 tables however in the past 4 years it has made a huge progress. Coffee express started on the 1st of February 2013. It is located at Sylvia Park, Mount Wellington, and Auckland. We started with only 4staffs. Our main focus on was takeaway coffees and fresh and toasted sandwiches only. Our signature sandwiches such as classic clubhouse sandwich, choice of fish, chicken, vegetarian, grilled chicken sandwich, and grilled fish fillet sandwich.Our authentic sandwiches became very popular and famous among the kiwis. Its freshness and crunchiness were enjoyed by all. Due to our sandwichs, customers started to spend more on coffees. From takeaway coffees, it soon started with have it in coffees. Coffee express became more hectic and demanding and was a challenge to keep up with only 6tables in the shop. After a year of huge progress, I decided to invest in the shop, extending the whole area and adding 10 tables which meant more st aff as well. The whole expansion became a huge challenge for me. For the new success we considered ourselves a learning business that is growing which responds to changing customers, employees, and system. New rules, procedures, mission, and vision statement of the cafe was initiated. As a sole trader it is totally my duty and responsibility to run my own coffee express. These duties involve acting as an owner, stock controller, floor manager, and food service manager as well. Maintaining and controlling a constructive work environment by planning, direct, coordinate and check all accounts of the cafÃ ©. The vision statementÃ of the cafe; is to spread the spirit of rock n roll by creating genuine experiences and delivering kiss ass service that rock your world. The value statement of the cafÃ © is to commit on ensuring a long term success by ensuring a family fun and nurturing work environment.Ã Moreover, in order for my team to understand visions and values, they need to have a genuine interest in serving customers. For them to have these certain interest they must acquire hospitality qualification and trade. For a long term success of the cafÃ ©, my team must obtain that authentic rock and roll experience that customers would be attracted to come back f or. Furthermore, I know that my team have understood the visions and value for the cafe; because I have now managed to expand the entire cafÃ © to 10 serving tables now.Ã The success of the cafÃ © speaks for itself and i am assured that the authentic genuine are given to customers as they come again for the same vibe. The cafÃ © is generally a busy place from morning till lunch time. As a sole trader 2 behavioral expectation observed were autocratic and laissez fair. When coffee express was setup I opted on practicing autocratic leadership which had worked out quite well enough for me in the past 4years of my business. Having to hold the ultimate power as the owner and taking no account for others opinion has molded me and my business thriving. Being able to have individual control over all decisions has helped me achieve all my goals and objectives in these years. My own ideas and judgments have been accepted by my followers and have resulted in a huge success. My goal was always to expand my business and through autocratic leadership I have managed to accomplish it. For example, when it came to making of sandwiches or coffee, first in first out strategy was imposed and was being followed by my staff. I.e. whoever orders and pays first shall be served first. All customers were given equal priority. For the existing accomplishments, this strategy seemed glowing. Customer satisfaction developed and clients expectation boomed. Having to perform so many responsibilities, I happened to acquire laissez fair qualities as well. Usually I delegate my responsibilities to staff. I.e. asking them for their corporation in getting work finished or sometimes even to update register files and all. It was not possible to do all work by myself with such a hectic environment. For example, at the end of each month I used to assign two staff for stock take. They would count and record the stocks available in the shop and report back to me. I would then record i t in a computer data system and order stocks that are needed as soon as possible. Without my two staff I would not have been able to complete this task. As a leader being able to show laissez fair qualities makes a team stronger and brings in unity. Moving on, as a sole trader it is totally my duty and responsibility to run my own coffee express. These duties involve acting as an owner, stock controller, floor manager, and food service manager as well. Maintaining and controlling a constructive work environment by planning, direct, coordinate and check all accounts of the cafe. Influencing and keeping staff motivated at all times when it comes to interacting customers. At the cafÃ © we always try our best to meet the customer expectation and ensure that we commit on ensuring a long term success. This can only be achieved when we put our customers first regardless of whatever issues that need attention. I look after customer complaints or dissatisfaction if there are any. I always explain and apologize to my customers. On behalf of my staffs if they have made a mistake or even when I know that customers are wrong at times but we dont argue with them. At the back of my mind I know that my customers are always right. To amend this feedbacks are always taken from them to improve in our service and also we also give few items
Monday, August 19, 2019
SilverÃ¢â¬â¢s Remaking Eden and the Silver Screen In Remaking Eden, Lee M. Silver asks three central questions: Who controls life? What counts as life? And what will human life look like in the future? The question Silver does not ask is whether or not human life as we now know and define it will change. Silver sees the advance of genetic engineering as inevitable, due to consumer demand for it as a technology and the unrelenting curiosity of scientists. Power resides in science, according to Silver, and that power is Ã¢â¬Å"enormous.Ã¢â¬ In the closing chapter to Remaking Eden, entitled Ã¢â¬Å"TomorrowÃ¢â¬â¢s Children,Ã¢â¬ he recounts how Ã¢â¬Å"a single eccentric scientist named Kary MullisÃ¢â¬ obliterated all Ã¢â¬Å"preconceived notions of scientific limitationsÃ¢â¬ with his invention of the Polymerase Chain Reaction or Ã¢â¬Å"PCRÃ¢â¬ (240). As Silver describes it: More than any other technique invented during the twentieth century, PCR has changed the course of the biological and medical sciences. In addition to the enormous power that it added to gene discovery and analysis . . . PCR has made it possible to obtain rapid genetic profiles not only on humans but other animals and plants as well, with an enormous impact on both agriculture and environmental science. PCR has also had an enormous impact on forensics with its power to provide genetic profiles on even single hairs left behind at the scene of a crime. And PCR has provided us with the ability to look back into the past, to demonstrate that skeletons found buried in an isolated Siberian town really did belong to the last Russian Czar and his family, and much further back to derive genetic profiles on insects and plants that have been extinct for millions of years [emphases added]. (241) For all his sc... ...st 2005 . Kakmi, Dmetri. Ã¢â¬Å"The Mystery of Being in Gattaca.Ã¢â¬ Australian Screen Education 35 (2004): 88-90. Communications and Mass Media Complete. EBSCO Databases DuBois Library, UMass Amherst. 12 August 2005 . Lemonick, Michael D. Ã¢â¬Å"Cloning Classics.Ã¢â¬ Time 8 Nov. 1993: 70. Expanded Academic ASAP. InfoTrac. DuBois Library, UMass Amherst. 12 August 2005 . Silver, Lee M. Remaking Eden: How Genetic Engineering and Cloning Will Transform the American Family. 1997. New York: Perennial-Harper, 2002. Vergano, Dan, and Susan Wloszczyna. Ã¢â¬Å"Genetics Take Starring Role on Silver Screen.Ã¢â¬ USA Today 17 June 2002. 12 August 2005 genetics-movies.htm>.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Atkins and Low Carbohydrate Diets: Not the Optimal Method of Weight Loss :: Health Nutrition Diet Exercise Essays
Atkins and Low Carbohydrate Diets: Not the Optimal Method of Weight Loss In the help of todayÃ¢â¬â¢s society where looks seem to matter more than personality, different types of diets quickly became popular. In the year 2003 to 2004 the Atkins Diet reached its peak, from its wide advertising to its celebrity connections an increasing amount of Americans focus their interest on this unusual way of losing weight. The Atkins Diet was introduced by Dr. Robert Atkins in 1972. Its purpose is to make a person loose weight by eating foods that are high in protein and lessening foods that are high in carbohydrates. When a person eats foods that are high in carbohydrates, it produces a high amount of insulin which causes the body to quickly change food into body fat. On the other hand, when the body generates low carbohydrates it produces low insulin and this causes the body to search other areas for fuel, which is fat. And when the body does not have energy source that comes from carbohydrates it will turn to another resource which is fat to burn energy. So in other words, the Atkins Diet is stating that you can eat as much food that contains fats and proteins which are mainly steak, eggs and all the other foods that are taught to be unhealthy. Therefore, one question seems to be always asked when talking about the Atkins Diet. Does it work? Low carbohydrate diets have been very controversial because it does not follow the food pyramid and many Americans are puzzled by this idea. But countless people are trying it because of the idea that you can eat large amounts of good tasting foods and still be able to loose weight. There are also other advantages such as sleeping better, no headaches as well as no joint and muscular pains. Weight loss in the Atkins Diet is also rapid compared to the conventional way of loosing weight where carbohydrates are stated to stimulate a personÃ¢â¬â¢s appetite that triggers to more eating which can cause breaking the rules and longer time to see results. Many believe that the Atkins Diet is too good to be true and wants to be informed of the bad side of this well known diet. With its focus on fatty foods and meats, medical experts find the Atkins to be unsafe because it limits a person from eating nutrient rich foods.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
McDonald's Ã¢â¬â the 90th largest economy in the world Ã¢â¬â feeds about 1 percent of the world's population a day. That's 68 million people! It hires more than 1 million workers In the US per year and Is the world's largest toy distributed. McDonald's also created the Ronald McDonald House charity, which houses more than 6000 families a year in Australia alone. However, this Illinois-based company is undeniably threatening the Ã¢â¬Ëglobal village'. It is doing so in a lot of ways, including the damage it inflicts to the environment, its exploitation of foreign and domestic labor and its active impacts on traditional cultures.In this seminar, I will be analyzing different pictures that support my argument that McDonald's Is directly destroying the global village. I think that through the Impacts It has upon the environment In which we live, McDonald's is directly destroying the global village. As a large company, McDonald's needs a lot of resources to fuel its growth. For exa mple, Americans alone consume over 1 billion pounds of beef at McDonald's every year. A cow produces 250 ml of methane per day on average. Think of how much methane is created by the sows needed to produce 1 billion pounds of beef!McDonald's has also been accused by Greenback of feeding Its chickens with soybeans grown on farms In the Amazon rainforest's. These soybean farms are cleared Illegally. Leading to mass deforestation In the Amazon. By doing this, McDonald's not only encourages illegal traders in the Amazon, but also sends a worldwide message that deforestation is a viable option that can lead to contracts selling produce to McDonald's. Encouraging excessive methane production and deforestation are Just a few of the ways in which McDonald's helps to destroy the environment.McDonald's also negatively affects the global village by exploiting members of the workforce. This Is done through the misuse of domestic and foreign labor. McDonald's has always been the target of accusa tions that they exploit teenage labor, paying them wages that are too low to be readily lived upon. These reduced rates can be seen in this table. But most recently McDonald's has tried to tackle these accusations head on by releasing an example budget for someone who works for the company. From the start this budget was flawed, as you can see here, the employee would have to work two Jobs to survive.This fact shows that an employee could not be sustained on a McDonald's wage. Secondly, McDonald's cited that health cover costs $20. This is not the case, for that amount you would be likely only to get say, ambulance cover. Thirdly, try spending only $25 a day on Just food, let alone drinks, clothes and other necessities. This budget on its own, is certain evidence that you would not be able to live on a McDonald's wage. In extreme cases some people have had to choose between paying bills and eating food.This exploitation of cheap labor is another reason why I think McDonald's Is cont ributing too diminished global village. McDonald's Is also destroying the global village by abolishing various cultures from around the world. As seen in the picture here, McDonald's is intervening with traditional culture, replacing traditional pastimes, like food-preparation and consumption, with an internationalists product. Often in these traditional cultures, things like food can be tied up with rituals, so food is linked to their cultural heritage.By replacing chance to pass on their cultural stories through food. However some people in other parts of the world have realized that this tragic loss of culture is occurring. For example, the people of a small town east of Melbourne called Tacoma has recently protested against there being a McDonald's built in the town. 80 000 people thus far have signed a petition demanding that a McDonald's franchise not be installed in their town. The fact that the company destroys culture and that people are realizing it is another reason that McDonald's is destroying the global village.
I recently read the story namedÃ¢â¬ The Whole TruthÃ¢â¬ . This story was telling us lies are a bad idea but you can lie in some situations. This story told us about a yound man named Bob, he lied to a parking lot owner that he was graduated from high school and he was 21 years old but actually he was 18. He got a job. After 4 months, his boss suggested him to go to college. He feel nervous because he lied to his boss and that will be the cause him to lose his job. Acording to the passage which was said: Ã¢â¬Å"Most of people agree that telling lies is a bad idea. But there are times when telling a lie might be a good ideaÃ¢â¬ . First of all, lie is considered to be bad, and most people hate liars. Have you ever read the ironic story named Ã¢â¬Å"a wolf and a liarÃ¢â¬ about a shepherd boy always lie with the villagers about a wolf is attacking his sheeps and need help and one day that happen and this boy called for help but noone help him because they think he just wanted to make fun and a wolf killed many sheeps of him. Moreover, some lie can be cause of serious problem. If you had been watching many criminal movies you might know about this which is about some people wanted to have more benefit for themselves and they provide a wrong information that may cause that company have to face a serious challege such as backrupt and workers in that company also may lost their job. On the other hand, some times you can telling a lie because that help you pass the trouble, help yourself or to help others. The passage above about a young man who lied to a parking lot owner to get a job but he really work hard there. No one in the world is never lie before and also now. Here is very symple example which is about 2 lover, a man love 1 girl and he have to lie to his girlfriend whenever he wanted to go out with her because she very busy with her studies and her job. In my opinion, every one did lie at least a hundred times in their life but you have to think before you tell other a lie. You have to know about consequence of what you are doing, is it bad or good? Some people they totally believe lie is a badest thing of the world because they believe that liars are always a bad people and that is a crime. However, my opinion is their adversary. I donÃ¢â¬â¢t say lie is good but it depend on what you are lying about and who you are lying to. In conclusion, no one can tell that lie is good or bad because lie can help people and also can cause people to face with a serious problem.
Friday, August 16, 2019
1. Introduction Automobile industry is the key driver of any growing economy. Due to its deep forward and backward relation with almost every segment of the economy, the industry has a string and positive multiplier effect and thus propels progress of a nation. With the falling demands for vehicles in most of the mature markets due to the global recession, high fuel costs and urban driving restrictions, the industry is focusing its attention on expanding middle classes in the new powerhouses of China, India, Brazil, and other growing nations. IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s per capita real GDP growth at 8.6% (CAGR) over the six year period 2005-2011 had contributed substantially towards raising the standard of living of households, which in turn had been one of the key drivers of growth for the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s automobile industry. But over 2011-12 and 2012-13, inflationary conditions, firm interest rates, rising petrol prices as well as weak monsoons adversely impacted disposable incomes causing a consumption squee ze.  According to the global automotive executive survey 2013 done by KPMG, 86% of the respondents feel market growth in emerging nations is an important trend- a view shared by auto executives from both the TRIAD market(Japan, Western Europe and North America) and the BRICs. The developing markets along with e-mobility and the changing urban environment had brought about a change in the automobile industry. 56% of the respondents in the BRICs feel innovative urban vehicle design concepts are an important trend compared to 55% from the TRIADs. The Indian automobile market is one of the competitive markets with low costs, which make it an attractive assemble base for foreign automobile manufacturers. India is also the second fastest growing automobile market in the world after China. 2. Market Segmentation The automobile industry has been broadly divided into the two wheelers, passenger vehicles, commercial vehicles and three wheelers. The various sub divisions of each segment is shown in the following figure 2.1. Figure 2.1. Market Segmentation of Automobile Industry Source http://www.ibef.org/download/Automotives-March-220313.pdf Source Figure 2.1. Market Segmentation of Automobile Industry Source http://www.ibef.org/download/Automotives-March-220313.pdf Source The two wheelers dominate the production volumes in FY 2012, which contributed for more than three quarters of the total automobiles production in the country. India is the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s 2nd largest two wheeler producer and the 4th largest commercial vehicle producer. Figure 2.2. Market share by volume (FY12) Source http://www.siamindia.com/scripts/market-share.aspx 2. Passenger Vehicle Segments The segments in the passenger vehicle industry are done based on the price, utility and the length of each vehicle. There are different parameters based on which the cars available in the Indian market are categorized. The technically defining parameters are based on the length of the car, engine capacity, features offered, seating capacity and structure of the car etc. SIAM or Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers divides the Indian passenger vehicles in the segments A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, A6, B1, B2 and SUV. The classification is done solely based on the length of the automobiles. The details of the segments are mentioned as in table 2.1. Car Segment| Length of the car/Model type| Car model belonging to the segment| A1| Up to 3400mm| Nano| A2| 3401 to 4000mm| Alto, i10, Zen, Wagon R| A3| 4001 to 4500mm| Manza, Logan, Dzire, City| A4| 4501 to 4700mm| Corolla, Octavia, Optra| A5| 4701 to 5000mm| Accord, Camry, Sonata| A6| More than 5000 mm| Mercedes S class| B1| Vans| Versa, Omni| B2| MUV/MPV| Sumo, Innova| SUV| SUV| Vitara, CRV| Table 2.1. Passenger car segmentation based on length However, though it is simple and easy to divide the passenger cars based on their length, it is not at all practical. The price of a car isnÃ¢â¬â¢t determined by length only. A shorter car might be priced higher than a lengthier model. Also the features and configuration of the car models doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t depend on the car length. Hence, to avoid all the confusions the Indian passenger cars are popularly divided into the below mentioned segments according to the following properties, as in table 2.2. Car Segment| Distinguishing feature of the cars in this segment| Car model belonging to the segment| A| Cars priced below Rs. 3.5 Lakh| Alto, Spark, Nano, Eon| A1| Hatchback priced lower than Rs. 6 Lakh| Santro, Indica, Beat| A2| Hatchback priced between Rs. 6 to 7.5 Lakh| Ritz, i10, i20, Swift, Figo| B1| Vans| Versa, Omni| B2| MUV/MPV| Sumo, Innova| C1| Sedan models priced below Rs. 8 Lakh| Indigo, Fiesta, Sunny| C2| Sedan models priced between Rs. 8 to 9.5 Lakh| Verna, Manza, Linea| D1| Premium Sedan models priced below Rs. 15 Lakh| Fluence, Corolla| D2| Luxury Sedan models priced below Rs. 25 Lakh| Sonata, Camry, Kizashi| SUV| SUV| Vitara, CRV| Table 2.2. Passenger car segmentation based on price Body type is the other most popular factor for classification of passenger vehicles. This segmentation process is not only limited to the Indian sub-continent, this is a common method that enjoys popularity throughout the world. The segments we suggest according to the car body types and the pricing are mentioned as in table 2.4. Range| Pricing| Entry| Below 5 lakhs| Economy| 5-15 lakhs| Premium| 15-30 lakhs| Luxury| 30-60 lakhs| Super Luxury| 60 lakhs and above| Table 2.3. Segment pricing Car segment| Range| Cars in Indian market| Hatchback| A1| Entry| Maruti Alto 800, Nano, Hyundai Eon, Maruti WagonR| | A2| Economy| Hyundai i20, Maruti Swift, Fiat Punto, Volkswagen Polo| | A3| Premium| BMW MiniCooper, Fiat 500, Volkswagen Beetle| | A4| Luxury| N.A.| | A5| Super Luxury| | MUV/MPV| B1| Entry| Maruti Eeco| | B2| Economy| Maruti Ertiga, Toyota Innova, | | B3| Premium| Mercedes Benz A-class, B-class| | B4| Luxury| N.A.| | B5| Super Luxury| | SUV/Crossover| C1| Entry| Mahindra Thar| | C2| Economy| Ford Ecosport, Renault Duster, Force One| | C3| Premium| Skoda Yeti, Mitsubishi Pajero, Toyota Fortuner, Maruti Grand Vitara| | C4| Luxury| BMW X1, Audi Q3, Landrover Freelander 2| | C5| Super Luxury| Audi Q7, BMW X6, Volkswagen Tourareg| Sedan| D1| Entry| HM Ambassador| | D2| Economy| Maruti Dezire, Nissan Sunny, Toyota Ethios| | D3| Premium| Maruti Kizashi, Skoda Superb, Hyundai Sonata| | D4| Luxury| Volvo S60, Audi A4, BMW 3 series, Audi S4| | D5| Super Luxury| Mercedes Benz S class, Audi S6, Audi A7, Jaguar XJ| Van| E1| Entry| Maruti Omni, Tata Venture| | E2| Economy| Tata Winger, Tata Winger Platinum| | E3| Premium| N.A.| | E4| Luxury| | | E5| Super Luxury| | Table 2.4. Passenger car segments 3. Market Analysis The various aspects involved in the automobile industry, namely the market size, market trends, penetration rate, growth rate, etc. are analyzed in this chapter. The distribution channel involved for the passenger vehicle segment is also discussed here. 3.1. Market Size In the passenger vehicle segment, there has been an increase in sales by 1.20% in the FY 2012-13 compared to that of FY 2011-12 with figures of 20,626,227 units of production of passenger vehicles, as shown in figure 3.1. The cumulative average growth rate (CAGR) for the period from 2008-12 was 14% compared to the estimated CAGR for the period from 20013-21 which is 13%. 3.2. Market Trends One of the major player in the world automotive industry is Indian car market. It is the second in automobile industry after China. Indian car industry is facing a serious problem is present year. Car sales are down by more than 6% in FY 2012-13 compare to last year of FY 2011-12. The main reasons are high interest rates, fuel price, high inflation, low movement in other sectors etc. But irrespective of the sales slump, Utility vehicle segment is having the maximum growth in this segment at 52%. Ertiga has put successful foot print this segment. This vehicle is giving good competition to Innova. SUV segment also grown due to its fuel economy and price combination became top choice for larger families. Kerala now accounts for 10 per cent of IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s luxury car sales. Kochi in particular has emerged as IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s strongest growing market for luxury car brands like BMW, Audi, Mercedes and Jaguar Land Rover. Another major trend in the automobile industry is the age of the potential customers are decreasing with the role of IT and other industries. 3.3.Market Growth rate The growth in passenger vehicle segment is at 2.15% for the FY 2012-13 compared to that of FY 2011-12. Cars have a negative growth of -6.69% when compared to that of utility vehicles which has an increase by 52.20% and vans with a minor growth of 1.08%. Figure 3.3. Passenger Vehicle segment growth rate for FY 2012-13 Source http://autobei.com/blog/passenger-vehicle-analysis-fiscal-year-2012-13/ 3.4. Market Penetration India has shown a great potential in passenger vehicle segments with penetration rate of 13 vehicles per 1000 population compared to the other BRIC countries making it the most attractive market for the industry presently. Figure 3.4. Market penetration for BRIC countries FY2010 per 1000 population Source Worldbank Figure 3.4. Market penetration for BRIC countries FY2010 per 1000 population Source Worldbank 3.5. Market Opportunities Car sales in India may be on a downside at the present but the total automobile market size will triple to 9.3 million units by 2020, according to global marketing information services company JD power. Driven by enhanced demand as the number of people with disposable income increases, the sector will grow at a compounded annual growth rate of 16% during the period as per the market research firm. They forecast India to have a consistent and gradual growth such that the automobile market will triple from the present size of about 9.3 million units. 3.6. Competition Intensity 3.7. Pricing Structure 3.8 Market Profitability 4. Distribution Channels * Company has 246 local suppliers and 20 global ones Ã¢â¬â they all function in a seamless manner. The company strictly receives their supplies ordered the previous night in a two hour slot the next day. A far cry from the initial 30 day supply period. * The company had adopted Just In Time (JIT) to achieve higher operational efficiencies and reduce inventory carrying cost. Maruti Suzuki has adopted the e-Nagare system of electronic flow which has completely transformed its supplier chain. * To achieve JIT material supplies, the company has given preference to locally based suppliers. Over 76% of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s 246 suppliers are located within 100 kms of radius. They have strategically located the suppliers of bulky components such as instrument panels, fuel tanks, bumpers, seats, etc. adjacent to the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s manufacturing facilities in the SuppliersÃ¢â¬â¢ Park. * In order to enter new markets, Maruti Suzuki has ventured into contract manufacturing. For example vehicles manufactured in India are sold under the Nissan brand in European market. * Using a combination of Unix Shell programming, Oracle forms, .Net, and Windows FTP technology, the internal team brought transparency to the export supply chain. * Maruti Suzuki has 933 dealerships across 666 towns and cities in India. It has 2,946 service stations in 1,395 towns and cities throughout India. It has 30 Express service stations on 30 National Highways. 5. Competition Maruti Suzuki is IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s largest OEM of passenger cars, netting about 55% of domestic sales. The biggest competitor for Maruti is Hyndai Motors. Quality Product/service| 0 50 100 Maruti / Hyundai| Reputation in eyes of customers| 0 40 50 100 Hyundai Maruti | Prices| 0 40 50 100 Maruti Hyundai | New productslaunch/development| 0 50 100 Maruti / Hyundai| Table 5.1 5.1. Success factors of Hyundai * Refreshing the brand image is one of the key success factor of Hyundai. In the last decade, Hyundai Motor has made significant inroads in building its brand from the Ã¢â¬Å"Worst Car Ever MadeÃ¢â¬ to a 72nd ranking in the 2007 Best Global Brand survey. * Efforts were made from Hyundai in this aspect and as a result, Hyundai Motor has been recognized as a producer of quality cars which are reliable and affordable * Stylish design of the products and tagline Ã¢â¬Å" new thinking new possibilitiesÃ¢â¬ made the company to collaborate with its branding. * Global presence for Hyundai is high when compared to Maruti. 5.2. Competitors for Maruti Hyundai, Toyota, Honda and Chevrolet are the main competitors for Maruti, with Hyundai and Chevrolet the main competitors in small car segment and Toyota and Honda joining in the race recently with the launch of Ethios and Brios respectively. 5.3. New competitors * Honda is coming up with new cars which are targeting the same group of Maruti products Ex: Amaze, Dzire * Hyundai is coming up with Grand i10 as a competition for Swift. * Other car makers like Nissan, M&M are also releasing products in hatchback car segment rigorously which has to be faced by Maruti. 6. Reference 1) http://www.kpmg.com/KZ/ru/IssuesAndInsights/ArticlesAndPublications/Documents/KPMGs-Global-Automotive-Executive-Survey-2013.pdf 2) http://www.icra.in/Files/ticker/SH-2013-Q2-1-ICRA-Two-Wheeler.pdf 3) http://profit.ndtv.com/news/corporates/article-5-facts-about-indias-growing-two-wheeler-market-305607 4) http://autobei.com/blog/passenger-vehicle-analysis-fiscal-year-2012-13/ 5) http://www.strategy-business.com/article/00162?gko=8346f 6) http://www.cardekho.com/compare/hyundai-elantra-and-maruti-kizashi.htm 7) http://www.motorbeam.com/cars/maruti-suzuki/maruti-suzuki-ranks-highest-in-customer-satisfaction/ 8) http://cars.pricedekho.com 9) http://www.cardekho.com 10) http://www.prokerala.com/automobile/cars/ 11) http://autoenthu.blogspot.in/2012/08/passenger-car-segments-india.html 12) http://profit.ndtv.com/news/industries/article-indian-auto-market-size-to-triple-to-9-3-million-units-by-2020-jd-power-319349 13)
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Many of the institutions and customs that emerged in east Asia during this era persisted until the twentieth century or even the present. Why do you think this is so? Why does there seem to be more continuity in east Asian history than in other parts of the world? Patriarchal Family. Nomadic Threats. Mandate of Heaven. 2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of a form of writing that is pictographic and ideographic (like Chinese) versus one that is alphabetic? Advantages: A single characater can mean an entire phrase or can have multiple meanings.If you are fluent in the meanings, then it is easier to read and ideas can be connected together more quickly. If the pictographs represent everyday things that everybody knows, it may be easier to learn to understand the language on the more basic level. Disadvantages: It could take a very long time to learn it all. For example, it could take a very long time to learn all the letters that represent one idea or thought. It has a wider i nterpretation, something may mean one thing to a person and slightly different to another.For example, a letter could represent a cat , could be seen as a panther to somebody else. 3. How do early east Asian religious beliefs and practices differ from those of the other early cultures you have studied so far? What do these differences imply about the societies' structures and their most important values? East Asia did not have a main or official type of a religion. They only followed the rule of the Mandate of Heaven. A leader is chosen by heavenly powers to govern within his realm. If the ruler was successful in his duties then the heavenly powers would rejoice.If the ruler failed then the heavenly powers would withdraw a mandate to rule and a better deserving person will take that rulers place. The peoplel of east asia did not worship one certain deity at all unlike the other socieites . They also believed in the veneration of their ancestors. People believed that with doing good deeds and having great virtue throughout the family, then the ancestors will lead them to propser when they meet their ancestors. The region of Mesopotamia was under the belief of polytheism or many gods. Egypt was under the belief of many gods but mainly environmental gods, such as Ra the sun god, and the afterlife.
Wednesday, August 14, 2019
The San of the Kalahari Desert The San also known as Ã¢â¬Å"BushmenÃ¢â¬ are one of the well-known foraging and hunting communities. They have made the Kalahari Desert located in Southwest Africa their home for many years. These communities are called bands that consist of multifamily groups with a size ranging from 25 to 50 people. Ã¢â¬Å"Family, marriage, and kinship, gender, and age are the key principles of social organizations in foraging societiesÃ¢â¬ (Nowak & Laird, 2010. Section 3. 7). In this paper you will have a brief understanding of the kinship system of the San Tribe, as well as how their environment influences their behavior and interactions. The nuclear family would consist of a mother, father and their children. This family is considered the most common in the foraging societies because they are able to adapt to various conditions. Bands are made up of several multifamily groupings such as nuclear families. It is very important how these families are related because it will determine how they will act towards each other. The bands will sometime include extended family members which will be beneficial in circumstances such as cooperation and sharing amongst the community. Both men and women work together to provide for the community as a whole. Women are responsible for 80% of the san diet (Nowak & Laird, 2010). Women are the primary gathers; their diet is consisting mostly of nuts and fruit. The men are responsible for 20% of the diet. They provide meat from their hunts. The women are able to gather enough food that will last a full week in two to three days. They can enjoy each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s company the rest of the time. The men and women work together by mentioning areas of vegetation or animals they may come across on their gathering and hunting trips. The good and services produced by the men and women are shared amongst the community. They rely on each other for the gathering and hunting of food. EveryoneÃ¢â¬â¢s participation is very important. There is an unspoken promise on the exchange of the goods and services. This is called reciprocity, Ã¢â¬Å"a mutual, agreed-upon exchange of goods and services. Reciprocity works well n a society in which food items need to be consumed quickly due to spoilageÃ¢â¬ (Nowak & Laird, 2010. Section 3. 3). Foragers have to stay mobile, so there is no room for stock piles of food or goods. Everything has to be used immediately; there is no need for storage because they can always get what they need from the environment. This type of reciprocity would be generalized, there are no expectations for nothing in return, in due time everything will work it- self out. The men are not always successful in their hunts but when they are the meat is prepared and distributed throughout the community. This will also be the same for the food that comes from the gatherings that the women go on as well. This insures that everyone is fed and that both men and women do not have to look for food every day. Everyone takes their turns in providing for the entire band. These interactions promote close bonds and social ties. They are not only sharing with just their neighbors but these are also their kin, no one is an unfamiliar person in these communities. In the San Tribe no one is of more value to another. Since everyone shares everything it leaves little room for jealousy. As in our society, we do not forage, we can pretty much walk in any store and purchased pre-prepared food and goods. There is little thought put into where our food will come from or where we live. The most important thing for us would be making sure we have the funds to be able to do the things that we would like to and purchase the things that we absolutely need. We focus on the needs of our immediate family such as our partners, children and parents vs. considering our communities. I feel that in our society most people are for self only. No one is really willing to help each other no more. I believe that if we had kinship systems in placed things would be a lot better. We could all come together and be there for each other. Making sure everyone has something and no one is left without. There are services shared among my neighbors such as lawn services, babysitting and clothing. We do these things for each other never expecting anything in return. References Nowak, B. & Laird, P. (2010) Cultural Anthropology. Retrieved from https://content. ashford. edu/books/AUANT101. 10. 2/sections/sec3. 7 (EBOOK) https://content. ashford. edu/books/AUANT101. 10. 2/sections/sec3. 3 (EBOOK)
Tuesday, August 13, 2019
Strategic Management - Essay Example culmination of activates that are often performed by the players in the market to design, make, promote and deliver these products to the final consumer (Walters and Rainbird, 2004). All the activities mentioned above lead to the satisfactions of the customer and they generally tend to factor in the needs of the final consumer. According to porter, the company can attain the competitiveness that it requires when it is able to successfully implement a generic strategy (De Kluyver and Pearce, 2009). The generic strategy focuses on the creation of differential products, focusing on the attainment of cost leadership and focus on the ultimate usability of the products. In the classification proposed by porter, the activities aimed at the attainment of generic strategy can fall into a class of inbound logistics, operations, outbound logistics marketing and support service (Ward and Mccreery et al., 1998, pp. 1035--1046). The aboveclass of activities falls into the primal category. The world is increasingly turning out to be very competitive (De Kluyver and Pearce, 2009). The competition among the business both at the local and international level is so high such that the success of any organization in the modern society has to understand the mechanisms of the market (Walters and Rainbird, 2004). The clear understanding of the market dynamics is important for the organizations that would be able to stay at the top of the business operations (Certo and Certo, 2006). Sector matric is one of the approaches that the organizations can use to stay ahead of the other by gaining significant competitive advantage by providing the organizations with the demand andsupply information. Sector matrix is an extension of the porterÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of value chain (Venkataraman and Pinto, 2008). It also incorporates the ideas from the commodity chain (Ward and Mccreery et al., 1998, pp. 1035--1046). This tool enables the creation of the idea of the market in the mind of a perso n (Nell and
Monday, August 12, 2019
A motivation letter - Essay Example n HR-related employee files reflecting salary aberrations, preparing tax returns and training new employees, giving me an appreciation for the complexities of human involvement. One of my primary goals is to work with clients to share problems and discover solutions. Auditing is a fascinating field that I could contribute to with my knowledge of common small-mid-sized business practices. I have a great deal of experience in the accounting field and also bring a strong basis of proficiency in computing systems. After working for a year as a computer engineer, it was a pleasure to develop unique accounting software for one firm and to maintain the existing accounting software for another firm for the past five years. As a computer engineer, I gained knowledge in a variety of application software, computer networking and teamwork skills. I am eager to discover new insights into the auditing field and perhaps discern new ways in which I might contribute. It is my hope that you are willing to accept me as a ready pupil and worker in Your Firm. Should you desire further information or to schedule an interview, I can be reached at Your Contact Information. My current schedule is open from 7 a.m. Ã¢â¬â 7 p.m. Monday through Friday (timezone) for phone calls. I can travel for interviews beginning next week Tuesday. With more than 5 years in the accounting departments of small and medium sized construction firms in Japan, my experience includes performing bank reconciliations, cash flow analysis and preparing financial statements and I am currently completing my training for a MasterÃ¢â¬â¢s Degree in Accounting. Duties of my previous positions have also included performing payroll and monthly closing processes; ensuring tax, legal and company compliance with payroll issues; preparing tax returns and training new employees. This experience has taught me much about how business is conducted in Japan, but I have a desire to discover more about how these issues are dealt with
Evidence for (or against) water on Mars - Essay Example ncluding volcanic activities, presence of polar ice caps and presence of chemical compounds on the Martian surface rocks are all evidences revealing the presence of water in the Mars planet. The planet Mars consists of water, which is in the form of ice. Mars planet has two polar ice caps, which are permanent. During the winter seasons, the Martian pole lies in constant darkness making the surface chill. This contributes to approximately 30 percent of the atmosphere, which is in the form of carbon dioxide ice (dry ice). However, when the sun strikes the poles, the carbon dioxide ice sublimes through sublimation process; thus forming winds that sweep the poles away at a speed of 400km/h (Murdin, 2009). Sublimation is a process of transforming solid substances into the gaseous state without passing through liquid stage. This is because most chemical compounds at normal pressures possess varied temperatures. Most solid substances that contain vapor pressure can sublime at certain temperatures such as water ice, which is below 0Ã °C. Ice and snow undergoes sublimation process although at a slow process but below the melting point. This is seen when a wet cloth, which is hu ng outside in a freezing weather and later removed when it is dry. The freezing to drying of the material dehydrates from freezing; thus allowing water to sublime under low pressure. Murdin (2009) argue that water exist on Mars in the form of ice. The Martian surface rocks occur in high latitude areas and are known as permafrost, which is in a freezing state below the 0Ã °C. Most permafrost areas are located in high latitudes, and ice is not always present, but they occur due to hydraulic saturation of the bedrock materials. Water vapor is always presented in the ambiance but the permafrost lack liquid water. The present condition of the surface of many planets does no longer support the existence of water in liquid form for a longer period. This is because the atmospheric temperature is too low; thus
Sunday, August 11, 2019
How organizations or manager effectively to use structural and transactional approaches to prevent or alleviate the stress at work - Essay Example These refer to the psychosocial working conditions in the work place that cause individual stress and negative emotional experience in the workplace. The best explanation of this approach is the KarasekÃ¢â¬â¢s Demand-Control Model which explains that when the job demands are high and control over the outcome is low, the individual is highly stressed and especially over the performance outcome. When the demands of the job are low and the control is low as well, the job is passive. This is equally similar to when the demands are low and the control is high as the worker will still experience low strain and hence minimal stress (Barley, Meyerson & Grodal, 2011). In order to prevent this type of stress, it is important to balance the demand even if the control will still be high. This will mean providing a work-life balance which will minimize the demand as well as handle employee relations effectively while still balancing the issue of increased computerization in the workplace which is not only demanding but draining and controlling (Barley, Meyerson & Grodal, 2011). This is the approach which deals purely with the psychological mechanisms and stressors. According to this approach, work stress is caused majorly by psychological issues such as the process of appraisal, decision making and even lack of coping mechanisms in each and every employee. It is the work environment that demands a lot from an individual leading to threatening their psychological well-being and hence hindering performance. In order to alleviate work place stress identified by this approach, it is important to identify which are the psychological stressors in the work place first. Other than those mentioned above of decision making and appraisal, others include the emotional demands of the work which are likely to cause emotional breakdown which is psychological. There is also the workplace violence, harassment, bullying or even discrimination that is directed towards
Saturday, August 10, 2019
INDIAN NEGOTIATION STYLES - Essay Example A break from socialist policies to a capitalist oriented economic structure has been cited as one of the contributing factors to the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s economic growth. Western countries have increased their levels of interest in the country for purposes of economic partnership. IndiaÃ¢â¬â¢s high population estimated at over a billion has attracted foreign investors who seek market for their products or cheap labor. However engaging with India demands a deeper connection with the culture, attitudes, and philosophies underlying their business practices. The Problem Multinationals and other global business entities that have attempted to establish their businesses in India have been faced with unique challenges that demanded the understanding of the corporate climate. The levels of success or failure in Indian business are directly related to the manner in which international players adjust to the unique character of Indian culture. Studies have established a strong connection between culture and business in the Indian context. Past and recent analyses on Indian negotiating style show that the styles adopted in Indian business environment are largely consistent with their cultural believes, social values, and attitudes towards life in general (Stephen, 2010). Indians embrace family values and respect the aspect of honesty, respect, order, and hierarchy. Indian culture also features a strong element of interpersonal communications and relationships. The individual is never separate from the deal. They view the negotiation in human terms rather than strictly technical business processes. In essence, Indian negotiating styles combines the values of culture honesty and details in ways that focus largely on the results rather than the processes. It is therefore important for business theorists to establish ways of establishing ways through which the synergies of culture, attitudes, and values can be incorporated into business practice. The Problem Background In India business is considered as a culture and not simply a means towards profits. Success and failure are assessed in terms of the character and ability of agents rather than logical outcomes of strategies and processes (Martin, & Chaney, 2009). In the context of international business, the negotiation process in India is considered, in many circles, as a process of balance of power and an adjustment of equilibriums between the presumed cultural greatness of the west and Indian culture. Cultural balance and cultural universalism acquire more prominence to challenge the negative assumptions resident in theories of cultural relativism as understood in business context. Indian negotiating styles significantly rely on the details (Zubko, & Sahay, 2010). Issues are broken down into their constituent parts and analyzed in accordance with the manner in which they relate to the bigger picture. In essence, the process entails the realization of a range of issues that connect with outcomes. Usually , the focus begins with the bigger picture before attention is given to the driving factors and the specifics of the deal. Clarity and order in the details of the deal becomes necessary for purposes of assessing the feasibility of the deal. Naturally, Indians prefer the guidance of clear data and mathematical procedure towards the attainment of a given goal. This trait is consistent with the cultural attachment to matters of mathematical and scientific importance.
Friday, August 9, 2019
Leadership - Essay Example These situational theories are highly dependent upon factors like the particular situation, task, people, environmental variables and organization. Fiedler had proposed a situational theory, which proposed that there is no singular way of handling particular situation (Davidson and Omar 1352-1706).The different leadership approaches adopted by the managers at varied situations have different impact on the employee morale and performance (Dong and Liu 1352-1706). When a leader adopts autocratic approach, there is negative impact on the employeesÃ¢â¬â¢ performance and outcome. When a leader adopts transformational and goal setting leadership, there is an increase in the employee performance and morale. Although, there is no singular leadership theory, which would help to increase the organizational outcome, moral and performance of the employees, yet the management of the organization needs to focus on application of several leadership theories. A distinction should be made between the task and relationship oriented managers. Task oriented managers lay emphasis on the tasks in hand, than on the enhancement of the leader member relationship (Fish 1352-1760). These kind of managers focus on the organizational structure, task delegated to the members and the position and power of the employees. It has been observed that the employee performance and morale increased with the motivation received from the managers. The employee morale and performance is also dependent on the way the manager conducts themselves and motivate the employees of the organization. The organizational outcome is also directly related and proportional to the motivation and the guidance of the leaders (Fontaine 125-135). The development plan would be to implement leadership program, which would highlight the basic leadership approaches like transformational, goal setting theories, which Leadership Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 37 Leadership - Essay Example The chosen leaders need to have enough knowledge on the forms of leadership that will foster student learning and teachersÃ¢â¬â¢ cooperation. This paper seeks to discuss key characteristics reflected in teacher leadership that positive impact on teachers. Theory of leadership is a fundamental characteristic of teacher leaders. The concept of leadership is a vital organ when it comes to development of effective leadership. The fundamental distinctions of leadership models are providing direction and exercising influence. The different ways employed in carrying out or executing these functions is what makes a leadership theory (Wilmore, 2007). Capturing the attention of school personnel is an important aspect in leadership. The above is a significant characteristic factor that contributes greatly to positive teacher leadership. In most institutions, students and teachers are found to posses low attention to initiatives from the leaders. In effecting leadership, such leaders should be able to capture the attention of these teachers and students in a variety of ways. The leaders can engage in using formative and summative student assessments aligned along the new standards (Wilmore, 2007). The leaders should develop capacity building. As much as assessment captures teachers and students attention, must a robust response to the dilemmas and conflicts created in order to generate productive change. Effective response is brought through development of a strong, in-house, systematically aligned, professional development strategies (Wilmore, 2007). The leaders should create and develop a sustained competitive edge in their jurisdictions. When the leaders create competitive but interactive forums among the teachers and the students, they will be able to sensitize on the positive impacts of their leaderships. Positive creation of competition facilitates empowerment of the teachers towards performing their tasks. Empowerment fosters accountability